The Republic of Tajikistan is a state in the south-east of Central Asia. It borders on Uzbekistan, Kirghizia, China and Afghanistan. The territory is 143, 1 ths sq km. A relief is a typical mountain country with heights from 300 to 7495 m 93% of the territory of the country occupy mountains, which attribute to the highest mountain system of the world: the Tian-Shan, the Gissar-Alay and the Pamir in the east of the country. There are the highest peaks Somony, former Communism (7495m) and Lenin (7134m). Almost half of the territory of the Tajikistan is on the height more than 3000 m. Plains border upon enlarged plots of river velleyes and hollows between mountains. On the territory of the country there are more than thousand mountain- valley glacier is Fedchenko. Its length is about 77 km.
Climate is moderate, sharp continental, dry. Complication of a releif and amplitudes of heights stipulate foe climatic differences of separate districts and high climatic zones. In valleys the temperature in January vacillates from 0°C to + 2°C, in alpine districts it drops to 27°C below zero. In valleys the temperature in July vacillates from + 23°C to + 30°C, in mountains it vacillates from + 4°C to + 15°C. On plains precipitation is 70 mm on East Pamir to 1600 mm on the south slopes of the Gissar range (3000 mm in alpine districts). Maximum precipitation is in winter and spring, it seldom rains in summer and in autumn. From October to May in the mountains snow-storms take place (the temperature may drop to 45°C below zero). On the plains sand-storms take place from June to October. Time without frosts is 230 days in the valleys of northern Tajikistan; is 230-240 days in the valleys of south-western Tajikistan; is 180 days in the valleys of the Gissar-Alay and Western Pamir; is 60 days in Eastern Pamir.
In Summer mountain and valley winds take place almost in all mountain districts. In Ferghana hollow dry and hot wind "garmsil" blows in summer and autumn. Drying up the south-western wind "afghan" is typical for the south of Tajikistan.
A democratic republic with a president form of government. A head of Government is a prime-minister. A legislative power belongs to the Parliament (Madjlisi Oli) which is elected for a period of 5 years.
The official language is the Tajik.
The capital is Dushanbe.
|Administrative and territorial divisions of Republic Tajikistan|
|Names of regions||Administrative centres||Territory ths sq km||Population ths|
Districts of republic
Population: about 6 m of people. In the country more than 80 nationalities live. The Tajiks (one of the most ancient people of the world attributing to the Iranian group of the Indo-European family) are 62 %, the Uzbeks - 24%, the Russians - about 3%, the Tatars, the Kirghizians and other nationalities. The peoples of the Pamir : Shugnantsy, Rushantsy, Bartangtsy, Orshortsy, Iazgulentsy, Ishkashimtsy and Vahantsy live on the territory of Gorno-Badahanian region. There is separately people Iagnobtsy, living in the valleys of rivers Iagnob and Varzob.
Religion: Most believers are Mussulmen-sunnite and most believers are Mussulmen - shiite and Ismailite- Semerichics. There are not numerous groups of population confessing Orthodoxy, Protestantism and Judaism.
Main holiday of Tajikistan is Navruz - colourful celebration of the New Year. It is celebrated in the equinox, according to an ancient Persian calendar. In Tajikistan two new holidays were established declaration of Independence: the Day of Independence (9 of September) and the day of Memory (12 of February). 12 February is the day of Memory of those, who perished during armed conflicts in Dushanbe in February of 1990.
According to a lunar calendar next Moslem holidays are celebrated: Ramadan, Eid-al-Phitr, Eid-al-Aja; they are celebrated in reverence as in the majority of Moslem countries.
Key industries are: light (cotton- cleaning, cotton fabric, silk, sewing industry, carpet weaving), food- stuffs industry (fruit-and canning industry, butter-oil industry and others).
Non-ferrous metallurgy (extraction and concentration of ores, non- ferrous metals and rare metals, production of aluminium and others), machinery construction and metal-working industry.
Extraction of common salt, brown coal, oil, gas; production of building materials. Main branches of agriculture: cotton-growing, silkworm Breeding, fruit-growing and wine-grouwing; cattle breeding and agriculture of cereals.
Cultivation of technical crops (on a whole cotton, flax- kudriash, sesame, geranium, tabacco; fodder crops; cereals (wheat, barley).
Main branches of breeding: sheep-breeding, dairy-and beef cattle Breeding; horses are bred. On the east Pamir yaks are bred.
Main type of transport: automobile and railway. The length of motor highway of common use is 13,3 ths km (in 1990); operation length of railways is 480 km. Export: cotton , electricity , aluminium, ores of non-ferrous and rare metals and so on. Basic partners of foreign trade: Russia, states of Central Asia and Kazakhstan.
National currency is a tadjik rubl.