History of the city goes back to antiquity. Modern history says that the archaic Khujand existed in the Achaemenid dynasty, that is, before coming to the banks of the Syr Darya troops of Alexander of Macedon. After capturing the city, they strengthened it, calling the Alexandria Eskhata (Extreme). In subsequent periods, Khujand have often provided at the center of historical events. In VIII. it took the Arabs, in the XIII century. Cities have a strong resistance Mongolian invaders, at the time of Genghis Khan's hordes of delaying progress on the west. Since ancient times, Khujand, being at the crossroads of trade routes east, was one of the most important economic, military, strategic and cultural centers Maverannahr. Through it passed the Great Silk Road, linking ancient Greece, Rome, Asia Minor, Egypt, Iran, India, China and Japan. Khujand was the birthplace of famous astronomers, mathematicians, physicians, historians, poets, and musicians. May 24, 1866 the city was occupied by the Russian army and joined the Russian Empire. Membership in the densely populated center of the empire, which had a rich economic resources of the district, a major site of roads between the Fergana valley, Tashkent oasis and Zeravshan valley, a major trading center, has opened new opportunities for the development of Khujand. In July 1916 the first of Khujand city in Central Asia, spoke out against the tsarist colonial policy, which tried to attract the Tajiks, among other peoples of the region to participate in the First World War (the Central Asian uprising in 1916). In Soviet times, was named Leninabad.



XVI century., Remains tiled decor XI-XII centuries. and XV. The building includes a spacious Ziarat Khan with three open entrances to the gantry axes gurkhan, corner hujra. Their domed ceilings, arches and intersecting on the thyroid sails, outdoor dome gurkhan raised on a high drum. In gurkhan are wooden tombstones XIV-XV centuries. with carving and inlays. To the south of the mausoleum is a mosque (XX century.) - 20-pillared hall with a painted ceiling and column aivan. Nearby stands Minaret. In the middle of the northern part of town, a few dozen meters from the Syr Darya river, near the modern city park of culture and leisure. Kamola Khujandi is a fortress built around VII - VIII centuries AD. The fortress covered an area approximately 300 x 200 m, and was surrounded by powerful cob wall. Later it was destroyed, but at the beginning of XVIII century was partially restored. Currently, the fortress houses the Museum of Archaeology and Fortification. It is known that in the XVIII century. Khujand was surrounded by a wall, it is now partially preserved in the western and eastern limits of the modern city. Once the total length of the walls was about 6 km, up to now remained of them little more than one kilometer.



Costavnaya part of the fortification of the city. Founded in VI-V centuries. BC. Oe. Khujand first fortress was surrounded by a bulk shaft within the wall of considerable thickness of the raw material. The town and the citadel - the component parts of the ancient Khujand had some walls, surrounded by a wide and deep ditch filled with water. The remains of these fortifications are found under the central part of the left bank of Khujand and the surrounding area of ​​the ancient city of Khujand area 20 ga.Srednevekovaya fortress was one of the most fortified in the Middle Azii.Vo the invasion of Genghis Khan (1219-1220 gg.) For the siege of the city were sent 25000th army with 50 thousand prisoners in Central Asia. The heroic defense of the fortress and Khujand is located nearby islands on the Syr Darya River under the guidance of Timurmalika is one of the brightest pages in the history of the liberation struggle of the Tajik people. As a result of the Mongol invasion the fortress was destroyed Khujand. According to historian Hofiz Abru, at the beginning of the XV century fortress lay in ruins. According to Zahiriddin Babur at the end of the XV century fortress has been restored and yavlyalyas residence of the local governor.