The Republic of Kyrgyzstan is in the north-east of Central Asia. It occupies a part of the Tian-Shan and the northern chains of the pamir-Alay. It borders on Kazakhstan, China, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. About 93% of the territory Kyrgyzstan are on a height more than 1000 m above sea level. 

Its territory is 198,5 ths sq. km. 

A relief is an alternation of high mountains and deep hollows among the mountains, of hot deserts and dry mountain steppes, and also an alternation of subalpine and alpine meadows at the outskirts of alpine glaciers. Mountain ranges occupy about 1/4 of a territory and stretch on the whole parallel ranges in the direction of latitude. Main ranges of the Tian-Shan bring together in the East, in a region of the Meridional range. They create a mighty mountain knot. Here (on the Boundary with China) Peak Pobeda (7439 m) roses. A mountain-mass of Akshiyrak, situated to the west, separates Internal Tian-Shan from Central Tian-Shan. Internal Tian-Shan is set off by the range Kokshaltau in the south (peak Dankov, 5982m); by the ranges Terskey-Alatau and Kirghistan in the north; by the range Ferghanian in the south-west. There are some ranges with alpine forms of relief in Internal Tian-Shan. They are separated by valleys and hollows. Extensive smooth spaces of "sirts" are characteristic features both for its eastern part and for Central Tin-Shan. Those spaces are bottoms of valleys situated on a big height (to 3850m). To the north of the range Terskey-Alatau, between it and the range Kungey-Alatau, there is an Issik-Kul hollow with the lake Issik-Kul. 

The western part of Kirghizia situates within West Tian-Shan. The most important orographical elements are here: talasskian valley, the range of Talasskian Alatau and Chatkalian range. In the south-west the northern, eastern and southern outskirts of Ferghanian hollow with foothills and plains (adirs) form parts of Kirghizia. The northern slope of Turkestanian range, Alay range, Alay valley and the northern slope of Zaalay range (Peak Lenin, 7134m) that is a northern outskirts of the Pamir form parts of Kirghizia in the south. 

##1,2,3,4## The climate is continental with considerable fluctuation off the air temperature, with moderate amount of precipitation, with dry air and small cloudiness. The length of the sunny day is 2500-2700 hours. The climate changes from the dry subtropical one to the alpine tundra (mossy marshy plain of the north) in connection with a mountain relief and big amplitudes of heights. The average temperature of January drops from 1 to 8oC below zero in districts of valleys, from 8 to 20oC below zero in the mountains of middle height and to 28oC below zero in alpine districts (Aksay valley). In the Aksay valley the absolute minimum temperature drops to 53oC below zero. In winter a thaw sets in frequently in all districts exept alpine districts. Summer is dry and hot. The average temperature of July rises up to 20 - 27oC in valleys of outskirts, up to 15 - 17oC in valleys of mountains of average height, up to 5oC and lower in alpine districts In Chuya valley and places in front of Ferghana the absolute maximum temperature is 43oC. Here the winds blow from the mountains and valleys. On the outside mountain slopes of the ferghanian ranges, opened towards the valleys, the winds blow called foehn. In the Issik-Kulian hollow the winds from the mountains and the valleys are strengthened by Breeze. In wide valleys there are winds blowing from side canyons. On the whole precipitation is brought by north-west, west and south-west air streamers. The mountain slopes, turned to these streamers, receive the most quantity of precipitation. In the north slopes of the Kirghisian range annual precipitation is about 750-770 mm, on the south-western slopes of Ferghana range is about 900-1000 mm but on their opposite slopes-only 200-250 mm. Annual precipitation in Chuia valley is about 300-400 mm, in Issik-Kul hollow is about 100-500 mm from the West to East, in Internal and Central Tian-Shan is about 265-180 mm from the West to the East. In valleys maximum quatity of precipitation is in May and April; on the slopes of Kirghizia and Ferghana ranges - in May and July. Because of peculiarity of physical and geographical conditions a snow line places on heights 3600-4600 m in different parts of the Tian-Shan. because of little quantity of snow hollows between mountains are used as winter partures. The length of time without frosts on the plains of the foothills of Ferghana is 200-220 days, in Chuia valley is 172-182 days, in the east of a district before Issik-Kul is 115-151 days, in Kochkor valley of Internal Tian-Shan is 90 days. 

State system

Republican form of Government. A head of the State is a president. A head of the Government is a prime-minister. A legislative power belongs to the two-chamber Supreme Soviet. 

The official languages are the Kirghizian and Russian. 

The capital is Bishkek (Piahpek).

Administrative-and-territorial divisions of Republic of Kyrgyzstan

Names of regions

Administrative centres

Territory ths sq km

Population ths

Chuia Bishkek 20.3 770.8
Issik-Kul Karakol 43.1 413.1
Talass Talas 11.4 199.9
Osh Osh 29.2 117.6
Djalal-Abad Djalal-Abad 33.7 869.3
Narin Narin 45.2 249.1
Batkent Batkent 17 382.4

Population: Population is 4,8 million of people. About 80 nationalities live in the Republic the Kirghizes make 52%, the Russians make 22%, the Uzbeks make 13% and so the Germans, the Tatars, the Ukrainians. Districts with a high developed industry have more dense population. They are: Chuia valley, plains of Osh and Jalalabad regions near by Ferghana. In mountain districts density of population is small. Here, in alpine valleys, the Tajiks and the Oigurs live on the whole. Owing to paces of natural growth of population Republic is in a row of the most growing country in the world. 

Religion: Mussulmen - sunnite, orthodox Christians and representatives of other confessions. 


Main branches of industry: machinary construction, non-ferrous metallurgy (extraction and concentration of mercurial, antimony, lead and zinc ores; production of mercury, antimony and so on ), light industry (initial processing of wool and leather; cotton - cleaning; production of cotton , wool and silk fabrics (materials); production of knitted wear / garments, of carpets and so on ); food-stuffs industry. Extraction of coal and lignite; of oil and gas; production of building materials. 

Land out of crop makes up 10,1 million hectares (in 1990). Main branch of agriculture is cattle- Breeding (sheep- breeding, diary- cattle -Breeding, beef cattle -Breeding, horse-breeding).Land under crop makes up 1294 ths hectares (in 1990): including cereals 42% (on the whole wheat), fodder crops 50%, technical crops 5% (cotton, tobacco-plant, etheric and oil cultures. Potatoes, vegetables, melons are grown. The other branches of agriculture are developed such as fruit - growing, wine - growing and sced-farm (sugar beet, lucerne). 

Gross collection of corn makes up 1,5 million tons (1990). Area of all irrigated agricultural lands makes up 1032 ths ha (1990). 

Main type of transport is automobile. Lend of metalled roads of general use is 19,3 ths km including road with hard cover is 17,3 ths km (in 1990). Length of operation railway roads is 371 km. There is navigation on the lake Issik-Kul. There is a pipe-line. There are some health resorts (Cholpan-Ata and so on) in Issik-Kul in a health resorts zone. There are also health resorts Djalal-Abad, Issik-Ata, Kisil-Bulak. Alpinism is cleveloped. 

National currency: som