Southern Kazakhstan


Akyrtas archaeological complex is located 40 km. east of the modern Taraz, 6 km south of the railway station Akchulakov at the foot of the Kyrgyz Alatau. The concept of the archaeological complex, is applicable to the object under study, as it includes several monuments. These include: the palace complex (monumental building, rectangular in plan, laid out of massive stone blocks of red sandstone, height from 1 to 1.5 meters) Fortress (structure - almost square in plan, size 39 x 40.5 meters, is located 1 km south-west of the palace complex .. The orientation of the fortress - by countries of the world. In the corners of buildings, apparently, are the towers, round in cross section); Castle (building is located on a natural hill. Its dimensions 40h25 m, height 3 - 3.5 m, the building is rectangular, with long sides oriented from east to west with a small Sdvizhkov. The building dates from the second half of the XIII-X c.), garden and park area (east of the palace complex is a site surrounded by a wall measuring 250x250 m. Most likely to This area was assumed a park-garden) country estates (or in a different way "residential area", located north of "the palace complex, as well as several mounds, presumably the estate, located near the complex), as well as a quarry, a quarry to produce clays, lookout tower, dug slaves agroirrigatsionnye facilities and water supply system, a series of mounds of Saka.



Kayalyk (Antonovsky), capital city of Karluk tribes - the largest mound Ili Valley, located on the eastern outskirts. Koylyk Sarkand district of Almaty region (45 km north-east of the city Sarkanda). Monument VIII-XIV centuries. The territory is surrounded by ramparts, with a preserved height of up to 4 m. In terms of the settlement walls are kind of irregular quadrangle. North-eastern wall has a length of 1200 m, south-west 750 meters, adhering to the foot of the mountains. The territory of the settlement preserved the traces of urban development, streets, lanes, and now clearly visible in the topography. Medieval Kayalyk - one of the major political, economic, cultural centers on the Silk Road, which was known even before Rubruka from Persian and Arabic sources. One of the last of the dynasty of Karluk dzhabgu - Arslan Khan - was a well-known political figure in the beginning of the XIII century. He participated in the campaigns of the Mongols to the west. On the mound excavated several large objects, monuments of Buddhist temple, a bath, the estate of a rich man, identified and significant objects of Islamic culture XII-XIV centuries.: Great Mosque, the mausoleums and khanaka complex, and found the remains of Manichaean temple. Carried out excavations at the citadel and palace complex of the city. Failed to reveal much of what he wrote the eminent traveler - mosques and mausoleums, Buddhist temple and Manichean shrine. Conducted excavations, presumably Nestorian fortified settlements Lepsy (p HPP), located 6 km northeast of the fort Antonovsky. From the findings interesting carved terra-cotta from the portal of the mausoleum at the end of XII, (the same, preserved terracotta tombs Uzgen XII century.), 13 Spanner light of the Manichaean church, an Iranian vessel with lyustrovy estate dealer, and many others. etc.



Turkic sanctuary of Merke.

Is a cult memorial Turks and localized in the alpine headwaters of the river Zhailjau Merka. Cult nature of the monuments is expressed in temple constructions mound type with stone sculptures that are installed in the center or eastern part of the embankment. Historical-topographic map of the sanctuary of Merke marked 70 Turkic stone sculptures, including male and female statues. Statues are installed one by one male and female, two (male and female), three and rarely four statues on the same mound. Additional evidence that characterizes the religious character of the sanctuary, are the numerous monuments of rock art and tamga.

Turkic sanctuary Zhaisan.

Is a cult memorial Turks and localized in the homonymous valley, located in the lower reaches of the Chu River. Memorial and the iconic nature of the sites is reflected in the composition of complexes consisting of funerary structures (mounds) and ritual buildings with stone statues, steles with, as well as tamgas and petroglyphs, knocked on the rocks in the western part of the sanctuary. In contrast to the monuments of the sanctuary of Merke, religious shrines Zhaisan designs are single, two, three and four sectional fence constructed of stone blocks and slabs.



Ancient hillfort Otrar located 10 km west of the railway station Timur. In the north-west it adjoins to. Talapty. Otrartobe is pentagonal in plan mound, oriented to the cardinal angles with little otkloneniem1. Its southern side is 380 m, south-west - 145 m west - 400 m, north-east - 380 m, east - 350 m Maximum height of the hill on foot (18 m) was fixed at 8 topoplana, ie, in the south-western part, closer to the corner in the middle of its height varies from 10 to 15 m.
The bulk of the pottery dates back to the lift XVI-XVIII centuries. This is understandable, since the city intensely lived until the beginning of the XIX century. On Otrar pre-Mongolian time you can get some idea from written sources, in particular the writings Dzhuveyni. The topography of the ruins of an introduction to the nature of urban development after the destruction of the city in 1219-1220 years.
Hillfort is surrounded by a wall, the best-preserved in the north-eastern and eastern storon.Stena fortified towers. Around the main hill traced the remains of the ditch in a ravine with sloping edges. In the city were three of entry. Two are arranged opposite each other: one - in the south, the second - in the north-east wall and the third - in the mid-west. Were the central gate of the southern wall. Third, the western gate, is likely to be subsidiary. From sources we know the name of one of the gates of Sufi Khan (Darwaza-e-Sufi). Name of the gate is connected with the name of revered saint.



Hillfort Sauran located at the junction of South Kazakhstan and Kyzylorda, the passing in 1935 of the Kazakh railway, 40 km sesero-west of the city of Turkestan.
City Sauran existed in two places: in the pre-Mongol period (VI-XII cc.) Settled on the spot settlement Karatobe and Sauran XIII-XVIII centuries. was moved to a new place, and it corresponds to the eponymous monument. Hillfort Sauran is an oval in terms of area, extending from north-east to south-west by 800 m from the north-west to south-east at 550 m. Even now well see well-preserved fortress walls with jagged battlements, far from the massive speakers round towers. Height of the wall reaches six meters above the surrounding terrain at the base of its thickness - up to three meters. In an area of 33 hectares perfectly readable layout of the city with plazas, streets, alleys blind alleys with oplyvshimi remnants of administrative buildings, residential, vocational, etc.
The first mention of a city dating back to the tenth century. The famous Arab geographer Makdisi described him thus: "Sauran (Savran, Sabran) - a large city surrounded by seven walls, a mosque located in the inner city." When Juchids first time half of the XIV century. Sauran was the metropolitan center of Ak-Orda. The city was buried, who died in 1320 the ruler of the Ak-Orda Sasy-Buka. His son, Erzen built in Saurane and other cities in madrassas khanaka, mosques. The Role of Capital Centre Sauran retained and beyond. Valuable information about the city found the poet Vasifiy, who lived here in the years 1514-1515. He tells about one of the most-notable urban buildings - with two madrassas Shaking Minarets: On the shoulders of his aivan put two tall minarets of extraordinary height and extreme generosity. "



The predecessor of the modern Talgar located on the right bank Talgar in its exit from the mountain valley to valley. Now, no scientist has no doubt that this mound corresponds to the village of X century Talhize Talhiru. Ruins of Talgar currently predsgavlyayug a lofty quadrangular area surrounded on all sides oplyvshim shaft. The area occupied by a fortified part of around 9 hectares. At the corners of the shaft located on the perimeter of the tower. For the shaft has a moat.



Mausoleum Arystanbab. Architectural monument of the early twentieth century. The mausoleum was erected over the grave of a famous religious mysticism Arystanbab, who lived in the XII century. The first construction of the mausoleum belongs to the XIV-XV centuries. From her preserved carved wooden columns quince. In the XVIII century on the site of an ancient mazar, which was destroyed by an earthquake, was built two domed building with aivan, based on two carved wooden columns. The building of the XVIII century and was destroyed in 1909, was rebuilt, as the inscription on a frieze of cartouches. In 1971, due to the high groundwater level, which led her to the emergency condition, the mosque was demolished and rebuilt. The building is constructed of brick on the alabaster solution, in the face of masonry walls. At present, the mausoleum is one of the Muslim shrines of Central Asia and is a place of pilgrimage.